Advanced Equine Studies:

The Horse’s Respiratory System

UNIVERSAL ANATOMICAL NOMENCLATURE

Within the practice of veterinary medicine there are universally accepted terms to pinpoint a

three-dimensional location anywhere on the horse’s body. Throughout the program you will hear

the following terminology:

• Cranial means the head, or toward the head.

• Caudal means hindquarters, or toward the tail.

• Dorsal refers to the spinal back or an upper region.

• Ventral refers to the belly or a lower region.

• Proximal is the upper end of an area or the point at which an appendage joins to

the body.

• Distal is the lower end of an area or the tip of an appendage farthest from the

body.

• Medial refers to the center.

• Lateral refers the outer left or right side…which is always from the horse's

perspective and not the observer.

Advanced Equine Studies recommends a familiarity with these terms for accurate

communications.